Ancient as metallurgy itself, extremely resistant to corrosion and with a wide variety of industrial applications precious metals have accompanied mankind through its progress and evolution.
Due to the possibility to manufacture very fine grained and nano-crystalline alloys of high purity metals and alloys, EPoS’ technology, can drastically improve the scratch proof ability and hardness of precious alloys, without additional surface treatments or with a reduction in alloying elements, making precious alloys even more precious.
Diamond super abrasives are one of the most demanding applications as far as versatility, robustness, quality and speed of cut are involved.
With EPoS’ sintering technology high quality and high speed disks for granite (D54M00X) and marble (D33L00X) have been developed and produced with the advantage of flexibility, speed and low production costs. Molds and plungers with a large time-life have been optimized through series of thousands of sintered parts.
Rare earth permanent magnets (RPMs) have revolutionized the performances and design of electric engines, alternators, hard disks and audio devices in the last 20 years through the progressive increase in the energy product allowing a sensible reduction of the size of magnets and an increase in their properties.
By combining EPoS’ electro-sinter-forging to commercial Nd-Fe-B melt spun ribbons magnet production becomes easy, lean, fast and low cost. Isotropic cylinders, rings, blocks and cubes can be produced directly with a single shot ESF whereas anisotropic shapes required a two step ESF:
Known for their exceptional combination of hardness and toughness hard metal, widia or simply WC-Co is a material in continuous growth and expansion in many areas of industry: from cutting tools to recreational, from wear components to plungers and dies.
Used for thousands of years for its exceptional malleability, castability and corrosion resistance, copper and its alloys are easily processed with ESF. Thanks to a wide variety of commercial powders available with a large spectrum of particle sizes and compositions, electro-sinter-forged copper alloys and composites can be an inter- esting alternative, or a breakthrough innovation, compared to common cast, forged and machined products.
Typical sintered materials may be:
High purity, dense, hard copper with an average crystallite size of 20-40 nm was produced with ball milled dendiritic powders followed by capacitor discharge sintering. Exceptional hardness values beyond 180 HV0,5 with a conductivity of 79% IACS (1,33*10^-8 Ohm/m) have been obtained in the not yet optimized system. The material presents a yield strength of 450 MPa and could plastically compressed to a strain over 40% before fracture.
When you combine materials with different properties and nature to obtain a combination of properties of the constituents you create a composite material. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) combine the conductivity, toughness and resilience obtained from the metals with hardness, high temperature stability, low coefficient of thermal expansion, stiffness or lightweight of the reinforcements. Typical MMCs are:
Fields of application:
Nickel Titanium Naval Ordinance Laboratory was discovered in 1958 and since then has becoming increasingly popular as material for a wide range of applications: from critical bio-medical stents and orthopedic implants to leisure sports items. The production of Nitinol has always represented a challenge caused by the segregation of phases and the need to accurately control the processing atmosphere to avoid titanium depletion.
With EPoS’ technology Nitinol can be easily processed to theoretical density in air without oxidation thereby allowing lean production of small simple components with reduced or no machining. Both super-elastic and shape memory grades can be produced either with or without a heat treatment after sintering.
One of the most common elements on Earth, iron combines, when properly alloyed, an impressive number of properties and qualities: strength, ductility, availability, versatility, machinability and all at an unbeatable price. Electro-sinter-forging technology is confort- able with iron alloys and a wide, yet far from conclusive, range of tests have been per- formed on:
One of the most common and well known compositions for the production of steel through powder metallurgy, the Astaloy CrL (Fe-1.5%Cr-0.2%Mo) is a well known powder system by Höganas. The system has been recently put under evaluation by us and Politecnico di Torino to undercover the mechanical properties of electro-sinter-forged components and compare results with the tradition press and sinter. Transverse rupture strengths as high as 1600 MPa with a peak of over 1800 MPa were recorded on the electro-sinter-forged as sintered parts compared to the press and sintered samples with a density of 91% and 780 MPa of TRS.
Nano-crystalline AISI M2
A ferritic steel containing carbides with average size < 30 nm (see SEM image) and a grain size <100 nm (see XRD profile). The material was directly sintered from easy to handle ball milled nano-crystalline micro-metric powders with high flowability.
The as sintered state has an average HV0,5 of 700+/-30 HV and a density above 7,7 g/cc. The homogeneity of the sintered samples is shown in the graph below.
Typical applications: valve seats, cold working tools.
Known for their exceptionally high melting temperatures and extreme physical characteristics refractory metals play a fundamental role in a wide variety of applications. Dense, mechanically resistant to high temperatures and conductive they are a keystone of modern technology.